Background to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

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• Ozone depletion was first discussed by the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)    in 1976.

• Adoption of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer in 1985. The Vienna Convention encourages    intergovernmental cooperation on research, systematic observation of the ozone layer, monitoring of CFC production and the exchange of information.

• In 1987, several governments agreed to take specific measures to reduce and eventually eliminate the emissions of man-made ozone depleting substances (ODS) under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

• Control provisions of the Protocol have been strengthened through four amendments adopted in London – 1990; Copenhagen – 1992; Montreal – 1997; Beijing – 1999

• 175 countries are Party to the Protocol


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The Protocol seeks to protect the ozone layer through a defined approach and a specific set of targets to be met by Parties to phase out ODS.

Global Obligations

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• The Montreal Protocol seeks to phase out the use of ODS – CFCs by 2010, methyl bromide by 2015 and HCFCs by

• This phase out will be achieved by restrictions in trade in ODS through an import/export licensing system and the phase
   out of CFC production facilities.

Local Obligations and Response

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• St. Lucia became Party to the Montreal Protocol in 1993, subsequently ratifying the London, Copenhagen and Montreal amendments in 1999. Ratification of the Beijing Amendment is in process.

• St. Lucia has been actively participating in meetings of Parties and the Caribbean Ozone Officers Network

• CFCs must be phased out by 2010, HCFCs by 2040

• Establishment of a Refrigerants and AC Technicians Association underway.

• Training of Technicians in practicing good refrigeration, R&R and Retrofitting.

• Training of Customs officers in monitoring and control of trade.

• St. Lucia has passed the following Cabinet Conclusions in support of it’s efforts to protect the ozone layer and remain compliant as a Party to the Montreal Protocol:
- No. 859 of 2001 – St. Lucia’s adoption of the Beijing Amendment
- No. 404 of 2001 – St. Lucia’s development of an Import/Export Licensing System to control trade in ODS
- No. 1082 of 1999 – Duty Free Concessions for Equipment to Recover and Recycle Refrigerants
- No. 44 of 1999 – St. Lucia’s adoption of the London, Copenhagen and Montreal Amendments
- No. 1046 of 1998 – St. Lucia’s Action Plan for Meeting Obligations Under the Montreal Protocol



Impacts of Ozone Depletion

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• Skin cancer (melanoma and nonmelanoma)

• Suppression of human immune system

• Cataracts and eye damage

• Premature aging of skin and other skin problems

• Genetic mutations in lower forms of life e.g. amphibians

• Damage to materials e.g. plastics, paints on buildings/cars

• Reduced plant yields and productivity


Why the Montreal Protocol [Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer] Act?

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• The Montreal Amendment to the Protocol mandates Parties to establish and implement an import/export licensing
   system to control trade in ODS.

• The Montreal Protocol] Bill forms the basis for Saint Lucia’s phase out of ODS, and ultimately, its compliance as a Party
   to the Protocol.

• The Licensing system will need support from the Montreal Protocol Bill and regulations under the Bill for

Benefits of passing the Montreal Protocol Act

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• Consumer Protection: After 2010, production of CFC will be phased out. Consumption of CFCs in Saint Lucia and developing countries will also be phased out by 2010. The Montreal Protocol Bill will allow for the implementation of   the licensing system, which in-turn, carries a number of consumer protection instruments for the general public.

• The licensing system covers the following:
   - Limitation of persons importing ODSs to registered importers of ODS.
   - Prohibition on the importation of ODSs as of January 2010.
   - Ban on imports of equipment requiring a supply of an ODS as of January 2002 (this will protect consumers from purchasing equipment using ODS, as their functioning after 2010 will depend on the gas which may be available at high prices.

 - Provide for Retrofitters for the retrofitting of equipment that use ODS, or for those consumers who wish to change     over from ODS to ozone friendly gases.
  - Requirement for ODSs or equipment containing ODSs imported into Saint Lucia to be labeled in a manner that  identifies the active chemical.
 - Requirement that equipment containing an ODS that is offered for sale locally, be labeled conspicuously with the ODS

• Compliance with the Protocol: a Party could fall into non-compliance by failing to comply fully with its obligations under   the Protocol.

• The global community has recognized this issue of compliance and is currently addressing ways of strengthening compliance with multilateral environmental agreements in an effort to assist countries to remain compliant. By developing and implementing the licensing system St. Lucia’s will maintain its compliance status.

• Parties with a non-compliance status can be denied project funding and technical assistance.

• Alliances renewed and formed: Saint Lucia’s ability to maintain compliance will create new and continuing alliances with developed and developing countries, enhancing it’s ability to achieve success in other environmental conventions and obligations, as well as its sustainable development.


The Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol.

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The Fund is dedicated to reversing the deterioration of the Earth's ozone layer. It was established in 1991 to assist developing countries meet their Montreal Protocol commitments. It is managed by an Executive Committee with equal membership from developed and developing countries. The Fund Secretariat in Montreal assists the Committee in this task. To date the Fund has disbursed over US$ 1.59 billion to more than 4600 projects in 134 countries through UNDP, UNEP, UNIDO, and the World Bank.

For more information about the fund click on this link